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Treaty of 10 Januari 1679 between the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and the leaders of the Minahassan people. The name Minahasa means “The Union of the Nine Tribes” after the union concluded in the 15th century of the walak (tribes) living in the north

Treaty of 10 Januari 1679 between the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and the leaders of the Minahassan people.  The name Minahasa means “The Union of the Nine Tribes” after  the union concluded in the 15th century of the walak (tribes) living in the north
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Treaty of 10 Januari 1679 between the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and the leaders of the Minahassan people.

The name Minahasa means “The Union of the Nine Tribes” after the union concluded in the 15th century of the walak (tribes) living in the north of Sulawesi: The Tonsea-Tontemboan-Tombulu-Tondano-Tonsawang-Pasan Ratahan-Ponosakan-Bantik and Babontehu.

In the 16th century the Spaniards landed on the island and in 1574 they sent envoys to the Minahasa. This resulted in 1617 in the building of a fort near Manado. Not long afterwards they were dislodged by the Dutch which had settled themselves in another fort near Manado in 1608. In 1673 the Dutch Fort Amsterdam was built which became the nucleus of Dutch power in the Moluccas.

In 1679 the Governor of the Moluccas, Robert Padtbrugge concluded a treaty with the local rulers which was the beginning of a relationship of more than 300 years of the walak and the Dutch.

In l808 Daendels became Governor General. He abolished the treaty. Matulandi was then Kepala Walak of Touliang the West side of the river Tondano. Jacob Supit was Kepala Walak of Toulimambot the East side of the river.

The Tondanese did not accept the abolishing of the treaty. In l808 the Second Tondano War broke out. This time however the Tondanese had not enough rice supply for a long resistance. The men had to fight and there was no time for planting.

Matulandi and Supit fought beside their men. Houses were burned down, women and children killed, the people were hungry.

Not withstanding the hunger the Tondanese fought bravely (from: Geschiedenis van de Minahasa by Godee van Molsbergen. ) Jacob Supit realized that further fighting was senseless. He sought a way to negotiate and succeeded wonderfully.

However he had a difficult task of keeping the Tondanese together since they had no more confidence in the Dutch. The Tondanese blamed him for trusting the unreliable Dutch amd even called him a traitor.

Despite contradictive opinions the Tondanese with bleeding heart had to submit to the Dutch. Tondano was in ruins. The war ended in l809.

In l8l0 the region came under English control due to the Napoleonic War in Europe. Raffles became the Governor General.

Tondano was rebuilt in l8l2 under Kepala Walak Matulandi, Kepala Walak Jacob Supit and Nelson, a high ranking English official. The streets were straight as if drawn with a ruler and no windings. (Find out by yourself in Tondano.) The Dutch administration were reestablished in 1817.

Even when there were some other revolts in the 19th century the people from the Minahasa proved to be loyal to the Dutch Government. Many of them entered in the service of the Dutch army in the Indies and with their help the Java War (1825-’30) ended in a Dutch victory. In the beginning of the 20th century one third of the Royal Dutch Indies Army (KNIL) consisted of Minahasa soldiers, reason why they were often called Anjing Belanda (Dogs of the Dutch).

In January 1942 the Japanes attacked the Indies and one of their first aims was Manado. The Battle of Manado was fought between 11 and 13 January an easily won by the Japanaese Special Naval Force (Kaigun Tokubetsu Rikusentai).

After the war Dutch sovereignty was restored temporarily and Minahasa became a part of the State of East-Indonesia. In that time the Territoriaal Troepen Commando Noord-Celebes (Territorial Command North Celebes) was stationed in Manado.

In 1947 a political movement which called itself De Twaalfde Provincie (The Twelfth Province) opted for an incorporation of Minahasa into the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The movement was appeased by the appointment of the (christian) Minahasan Sam Ratulangi as the first republican governor of the province of East Indonesia in 1946 (in the meantime Tjokorde Gde Rake Sukawati being president of the State of East Indonesia).

In 1957 it came again to a revolt when Minahasa political leaders proclaimed an autonomous Permesta republic Piagam Perjuangan Semesta (Universal Struggle Charter)). When the movement joined the rebelling generals of the PRRI in Sumatra the revolt was crushed by Sukarno in 1958. In 1961 the Permesta rebels, who had retreated to the jungle to fight a guerilla, capitulated.

In 1960 the province of Sulawesi Utara dan Tengah (formerly Manado Residency) was established. In 1964 Sulawesi Tengah became a province of itself and in 2001 Sulawesi Utara was split up in the provinces of Gorontalo and Sulawesi Utara.
Date: 2019-01-10 13:12:47




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